Organum

   Earliest known type of Western polyphony. Anonymous treatises dating from the second half of the ninth century describe the addition of a new melody, the vox organalis ("organal voice") to a traditional Roman Catholic chant melody, the vox principalis. The new melody is a near copy of the chant but sung at the interval of a perfect octave, fourth, or fifth, note against note. Other intervals may be used to begin and end the organum on a unison. Early 12thcentury sources indicate more melodic independence in the vox organalis, but always homorhythmic, note against note.
   A decisive break for rhythmic independence of the combined melodies occurs in manuscripts associated with the Abbey of St. Martial, Limoges, Toulouse, and Narbonne in southern France, dating from the 12th century. For originally syllabic chants, they show a melismatic organum, a precursor of the cantus firmus technique, in which the traditional chant is sustained in long tones under a florid countermelody, and for originally melismatic chants another type, in which one, two, three, or four notes of the new melody sound against one (or sometimes more than one) note of the chant. Thirteenthcentury theorists distinguished these as organum purum and discant. Sources indicate advanced and prolific composition in polyphony associated with the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris from the latter half of the 12th century. The melismatic organa pura attributed to Leoninus are rhapsodically long. Clausulae (discant organum) attributed to Perotinus employ as many as four voices. In the 13th century, the genre gives way to motet and conductus.

Historical dictionary of sacred music. . 2006.

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  • Órganum — (método de primitiva polifonía vocal paralela): la melodía principal se muestra como puntos negros, el acompañamiento en órganum se muestra como redondas. El órganum es una forma de polifonía occidental primitiva, que alcanzó su apogeo en la… …   Wikipedia Español

  • organum — ● organum nom masculin (latin organum, du grec organon) Une des formes les plus anciennes (Xe XIIe s.) de la polyphonie fondée sur un thème de plain chant. ⇒ORGANUM, subst. masc. HIST. DE LA MUS. Aux IXe XIe s., voix qui accompagne rapidement à… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • organum — ORGÁNUM s.n. Una dintre formele cele mai vechi ale muzicii pe mai multe voci distincte, care consta dintr un contrapunct improvizat pe o temă de cânt liturgic. – Din fr. organum. Trimis de ionel bufu, 08.05.2004. Sursa: DEX 98  orgánum s. n.… …   Dicționar Român

  • organum — òrganum m DEFINICIJA pov. glazb. najraniji i najjednostavniji oblik europske umjetničke višeglasne glazbe; javlja se u 9. st., razvijen osobito u 12. st. ETIMOLOGIJA lat. organum …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Orgănum — Orgănum, 1) so v.w. Organ, s. Organon; 2) Orgel. O. hydraulicum, Wasserorgel. O. pneumaticum, Windorgel …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Orgănum — (griech.), soviel wie Organon (s. d.); auch Musikinstrument, insbes. die Orgel (s. d.). In der Geschichte der Musik bezeichnet O. außerdem die älteste und primitivste Art mehrstimmiger Musik, bestehend in einem fortgesetzten Auseinandergehen bis… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Organum — vgl. Organ …   Das Wörterbuch medizinischer Fachausdrücke

  • organum — [ôr′gə nəm] n. pl. organums or organa [ôr′gənə] [L: see ORGAN] 1. ORGANON 2. Music a) an early type of polyphony based on plainsong, in which the voices are separated by an interval of a fourth, fifth, or octave b) a c …   English World dictionary

  • Organum — This article is about a style of music. For the musical instrument, see organum (musical instrument). For the experimental music group, see David Jackman. Organum (  /ˈɔr …   Wikipedia

  • Organum —  Ne doit pas être confondu avec Orgue ni Novum Organum. Chant grégorien Plain chant …   Wikipédia en Français

  • organum — /awr geuh neuhm/, n., pl. organa / neuh/, organums. 1. an organon. 2. Music. a. the doubling, or simultaneous singing, of a melody at an interval of either a fourth, a fifth, or an octave. b. the second part in such singing. [1605 15; < L; see… …   Universalium

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